Male catkins are pendulous, female smaller, resembling tiny cones. Cones turn woody in winter. Seedlings sensitive to drought and shading. Leaves obtuse, dark-green on both sides, irregularly toothed with small indentation at tip. Roots with nitrogen-fixing nodules. Height: To 20m, but frequently smaller.
Abundant. Damp or wet base-rich to mildly acidic soils, woods, lake and streamsides. Frequently planted.
Root Rot: European Alders are now under threat from a fungal disease caused by hybridisation of two introduced species of the Phytophthora family.