Flowering: May-August. Fruiting through winter. Native.
Small white flowers, 4-petals and sepals. Red berries, not edible.
Shiny dark-green leaves with wavy margins and spiny edges. Upper leaves of older trees are often flat and without spines. Smooth grey bark. Green twigs. Dioecious. Height: 3-15m.
Very common, hedges, roadsides, woodland. Often grows as an under-shrub in deciduous woodland on acidic soils. Native, also frequently planted.